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Reference materials provide generalized, quick, and easy-­to­-access information on any given topic. Reference materials include encyclopedias and dictionaries, and they are helpful as a starting point in any research project. Culver­-Stockton’s reference collection includes many specialized encyclopedias and dictionaries, covering everything from earth sciences to accounting to world mythology.


Encyclopædia Britannica is a global educational publisher that provides timely, relevant, and trustworthy information and instructional products used in schools, universities, and libraries. Encyclopedia entries are composed by scholars and educators, and all work is subjected to rigorous editorial review.

Online Writing Lab (OWL) @ Purdue

For more than 20 years, the Purdue Writing Lab has been a leader in online writing instruction, and their website receives hundreds of millions of hits every year.


Oxford Reference is a massive collection of general and speciality encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps/atlases, and companion guides to specific subjects. Culver­-Stockton owns access to the following portions of Oxford Reference:

English Dictionaries/Thesauri
Australian Oxford Dictionary, Canadian Oxford Dictionary, A Dictionary of Abbreviations, The New Zealand Oxford Dictionary, The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style, The Oxford Dictionary of English, Oxford Paperback Thesaurus (4 ed), Pocket Oxford American Thesaurus (2 ed.), Visual English Dictionary, Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed.), Oxford Paperback Thesaurus (4 ed.)

Bilingual Dictionaries
Oxford Business French Dictionary: English­French and French­English, Oxford Business Spanish Dictionary: English­Spanish and Spanish­English, Pocket Modern Oxford Welsh Dictionary: English­Welsh and Welsh­English, Pocket Oxford German Dictionary (4 ed): English­German and German­English, Pocket Oxford Italian Dictionary (4 ed): English­Italian and Italian­English, Pocket Oxford Latin Dictionary (3 ed): English­Latin and Latin­English, Pocket Oxford Spanish Dictionary (4 ed): English­Spanish and Spanish­English, Pocket Oxford­Hachette French Dictionary (4 ed): French­Spanish and French­English,

General Quotations
The Oxford Dictionary of American Quotations (2 ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.), Oxford Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, Oxford Essential Quotations (2 ed.), Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations (3 ed.), Oxford Dictionary of Quotations (8 ed.), Oxford Essential Quotations (2 ed.)

Subject­ Specific Reference

General Reference
World Encyclopedia, World Flags, World Maps, The Concise Dictionary of World Place­Names, A Guide to Countries of the World (3 ed.)

Oxford Biblical Studies Online

This database (mentioned above in the “religion” section) provides a comprehensive resource for the study of the Bible and biblical history. Easy to search and navigate, this site offers a ready access point for a wealth of Bible text and commentary—texts from selected Oxford Bibles can be viewed in side­by­side display with the user's choice of commentary and annotations from the Study Bibles, the stand­alone Oxford Bible Commentary, and A­Z concordances for the NRSV and NAB translations. The Bible content is supplemented by collections of major apocryphal Old and New Testament texts in translation. In addition to the Bible texts, Oxford Biblical Studies Online offers quick access to over 5,000 A­Z entries from the Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Oxford Companion to the Bible, and a wealth of other Oxford references. Users can easily navigate to hundreds of topical essays within the Oxford Study Bibles themselves, in The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies, The Oxford History of the Biblical World, The Oxford Illustrated History of the Bible, Oxford Bible Atlas, and other works, and access hundreds of searchable images and maps from these major scholarly publications.